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INTRODUCTION

IMMUNOLOGY

BACTERIOLOGY

VIROLOGY

PARASITOLOGY

MYCOLOGY

INFECTIOUS DISEASE
 

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PART TWO: BACTERIOLOGY

Bacteria, along with blue-green algae, are prokaryotic cells. That is, in contrast to eukaryotic cells, they have no nucleus; rather the genetic material is restricted to an area of the cytoplasm called the nucleoid. Prokaryotic cells also do not have cytoplasmic compartment such as mitochondria and lysosomes that are found in eukaryotes. However, a structure that is found in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotic animal cells is the cell wall which allows bacteria to resist osmotic stress. These cell walls differ in complexity and bacteria are usually divided into two major groups, the gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, which reflect their cell wall structure.  The possession of this cell wall, which is not a constituent of animal cells, gives rise to the different antibiotic sensitivities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.  Prokaryotes and eukaryotes also differ in some important metabolic pathways, particularly in their energy metabolism and many bacterial species can adopt an anaerobic existence.

In this section, we shall look at the structure of typical bacterial cells and the ways in which they liberate energy from complex organic molecules. Various aspects of bacterial structure and metabolism are the basis of bacterial identification and taxonomy. Bacteria are constantly accumulating mutational changes and their environment imposes a strong selective pressure on them. Thus, they constantly  and rapidly evolve. In addition, they exchange genetic information, usually between members of the same species but occasionally between members of different species. We shall see how this occurs. 

Bacteria have parasites, the viruses called bacteriophages which are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply inside bacteria by making use of some or all of the host biosynthetic machinery. Eventually, these lyze the infected bacterial cell liberating new infection phage particles. The interrelationships of bacteria and the phages will be investigated.

Finally, we shall look at general aspects of bacterial pathogenesis, that is how bacteria damage the host organism, before surveying a variety of human diseases that are caused by bacteria.

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Bacterial Morphology

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BACTERIOLOGY    IMMUNOLOGY    VIROLOGY    PARASITOLOGY    MYCOLOGY

  
CHAPTER ONE
The Bacterial Cell
An introduction to the structure of the bacterial cell


 

 
CHAPTER TWO  
Culture and Identification of Infectious Agents
Bacterial identification in the diagnostic laboratory versus taxonomy.  Taxonomic characterization of bacteria. Approaches to rapid diagnosis

CHAPTER THREE
Nutrition, Growth and Energy Metabolism
Anaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Metabolism of sugars and fatty acids

CHAPTER FOUR 
Cell Envelope, spores and Macromolecular Biosynthesis
Structure and synthesis of the cell walls of gram-positive and gram negative bacteria

 

 
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CHAPTER FIVE 
Antibiotics - Cell Envelope
The mode of action of beta-lactam antibiotics


 

CHAPTER SIX
Antibiotics - Protein Synthesis, Nucleic Acid Synthesis and Metabolism 
The mode of action of antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Antibiotic susceptibility testing. The mechanisms by which bacteria express resistance to antibiotics
CHAPTER SEVEN 
Bacteriophage
The general composition and structure of bacteriophage.
The infectious process and the lytic multiplication cycle.
The lysogenic cycle and its regulation
CHAPTER EIGHT 
Exchange of Genetic Information
The mechanisms of gene transfer in bacteria. The nature of transposable genetic elements and plasmids. The significance of gene transfer, transposable genetic elements and plasmids
CHAPTER NINE 
Genetic Regulatory Mechanisms
The structure and transcription of bacterial genes. The molecular mechanisms that bacteria use to regulate gene activity. Inducible and repressible operons. The molecular mechanisms involved in catabolite repression and attenuation. The ways bacteria regulate enzyme activity
CHAPTER TEN 
General Aspects of Bacterial Pathogenesis
Exotoxins and endotoxins, transmission, adhesion, immunopathology

CHAPTER ELEVEN
Enterobacteriaceae 
Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio, Campylobacter and Helicobacter 

 

CHAPTER TWELVE
Streptococci
Groups A, B and D  streptococcus, pathogenesis, diagnosis

CHAPTER THIRTEEN
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococci
Streptococcus and pneumonia, Staphylococcus infections, food poisoning, toxic shock

 

 

CHAPTER FOURTEEN
Neisseria and Spirochetes
Syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, gonorrhea, meningitis

CHAPTER FIFTEEN
Anaerobes and Pseudomonas - Opportunistic Infections
Clostridia, gas-gangrene, tetanus, botulism, pseudomonads

CHAPTER SIXTEEN
Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria
Mycobacterial diseases: tuberculois,  diphtheria, leprosy

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
Zoonoses
Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Bacillus and Yersinia Plague, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Listeriosis


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CHAPTER EIGHTEEN
Bordetella, Haemophilus and Legionella
Whooping cough, Hib disease, Legionnaires' disease,


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CHAPTER NINETEEN
Mycoplasma and Uroplasma

 

The morphological and physiological characteristics of the mycoplasmas. Pathogenesis of mycoplasma infections. Clinical syndromes associated with and the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of mycoplasma infections
 


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CHAPTER TWENTY 
Chlamydia

 

 

Developmental cycle of chlamydia. Pathogenesis, epidemiology and clinical syndromes associated with chlamydia.


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CHAPTER TWENTY ONE
Rickettsia

 

Interactions of the Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Coxiella and Bartonella with the host cell. Pathogenesis, epidemiology and clinical syndromes associated with Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Coxiella and Bartonella. Methods for treatment, prevention and control of rickettsial diseases.
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BACTERIOLOGY    IMMUNOLOGY    VIROLOGY    PARASITOLOGY    MYCOLOGY