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INTRODUCTION

IMMUNOLOGY

BACTERIOLOGY

VIROLOGY

PARASITOLOGY

MYCOLOGY

INFECTIOUS DISEASE


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IMMUNOLOGY QUIZ 1

IMMUNOLOGY QUIZ 2

 

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PART ONE: IMMUNOLOGY

Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and  our responses to them. These invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites. In addition, we develop immune responses against our own proteins (and other molecules) in autoimmunity and against our own aberrant cells in tumor immunity. 

Our first line of defense against foreign organisms are barrier tissues such as the skin that stop the entry of organism into our bodies. If, however, these barrier layers are penetrated, the body contains cells that respond rapidly to the presence of the invader. These cells include macrophages and neutrophils that engulf foreign organisms and kill them without the need for antibodies. Immediate challenge also comes from soluble molecules that deprive the invading organism of essential nutrients (such as iron) and from certain molecules that are found on the surfaces of epithelia, in secretions (such as tears and saliva) and in the blood stream. This form of immunity is the innate or non-specific immune system that is continually ready to respond to invasion.  

A second line of defense is the specific or adaptive immune system which may take days to respond to a primary invasion (that is infection by an organism that has not hitherto been seen). In the specific immune system, we see the production of antibodies (soluble proteins that bind to foreign antigens) and cell-mediated responses in which specific cells recognize foreign pathogens and destroy them. In the case of viruses or tumors, this response is also vital to the recognition and destruction of virally-infected or tumorigenic cells. The response to a second round of infection is often more rapid than to the primary infection because of the activation of memory B and T cells. We shall see how cells of the immune system interact with one another by a variety of signal molecules so that a coordinated response may be mounted. These signals may be proteins such as lymphokines which are produced by cells of the lymphoid system, cytokines and chemokines that are produced by other cells in an immune response,  and which stimulate cells of the immune system. 

 

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BACTERIOLOGY    IMMUNOLOGY    VIROLOGY    PARASITOLOGY    MYCOLOGY

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CHAPTER ONE
INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY
The non-specific or innate immune system: Anatomical barriers, secretory molecules and cellular components    
CHAPTER TWO
COMPLEMENT
The complement system consists of more than 20 proteins in serum capable of lysing antibody-coated cells    

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CHAPTER THREE
ANTIGENS
 Antigens are substances that induce a specific immune response and subsequently react with the products of a specific immune response    
CHAPTER FOUR
THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS - ANTIBODIES
Immunoglobulins are protein molecules that are produced by plasma cells in
response to an antigen and which function as antibodies.
   
 

 
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CHAPTER FIVE
CLASSES OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS: ISOTYPES AND ALLOTYPES
Isotypes are antigenic determinants that characterize classes and subclasses of antibody  heavy chains and types and subtypes of light chains    
CHAPTER SIX
THE GENETICS OF IDIOTYPES
The organization and expression of the immunoglobulin gene families    
CHAPTER SEVEN   
ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AND TEST FOR THESE REACTIONS

 

The nature of antigen/antibody reactions - Antibody affinity and avidity - The basis for antibody specificity and cross reactivity - The principles of commonly used tests for antigen/antibody reactions    
CHAPTER EIGHT
ANTIBODY FORMATION
Characteristics of the specific immune response - Primary and secondary antibody responses - The molecular events involved in class switching and membrane immunoglobulin expression    
CHAPTER NINE
CELLS INVOLVED IN IMMUNE RESPONSES
An overview of the types of cell interactions and molecules required for specific immunity.    
CHAPTER TEN
MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX
The structure and function of cell surface molecules involved in immune cell interactions: major histocompatibility complex molecules, the T cell receptor (TCR), the CD3 complex, and accessory and costimulatory molecules.    
CHAPTER ELEVEN
RESPONSE TO ANTIGEN
Different types of antigen recognized by T and B cells. Cell biology and significance of different pathways for antigen processing and presentation by class I and class II MHC. Experimental basis for self MHC restriction. Role of the thymus in determining T cell receptor repertoire. Superantigens as anomalous antigens     
CHAPTER TWELVE
CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
Cell-cell interactions in specific immune responses
Helper T cell-B cell interactions for antibody formation against hapten-conjugated proteins and complex proteins. Thymus- independent antigens    
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
IMMUNOREGULATION
Subpopulations of helper T cells: Th1 and Th2. Cytokines and class (isotype) switching. Cytokine activation of macrophages and functions. Maturation and mechanism of killing by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). Characteristics of killing mechanisms of other cytolytic cells Immunoregulatory processes    

  

CHAPTER FOURTEEN
IMMUNIZATION
Passive and active immunization. Applications and problems of artificial and natural means of immunization. Modern approaches to immunization    
CHAPTER FIFTEEN
MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX - GENETICS AND ROLE IN TRANSPLANTATION
MHC loci and their products. Genetic basis of MHC heterogeneity in populations. Distribution of MHC molecules on different cells. How MHC antigens are detected (tissue typing). Role of MHC in Transplantation, immune functions and disease    
CHAPTER SIXTEEN
TOLERANCE AND AUTOIMMUNITY
Concept and significance of tolerance. Factors that determine induction of tolerance. Mechanism of tolerance induction. Concepts of autoimmunity and disease. Features of major autoimmune diseases. Theories of etiology of autoimmune disease    
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
HYPERSENSITIVITY STATES
Classification of hypersensitivity reactions. Diseases associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Mechanisms of damage in hypersensitivity reactions. Methods for diagnosing conditions due to hypersensitivity. Modes of treating disease due to hypersensitivity and their rationale    
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN
TUMOR IMMUNOLOGY
Evidence for immune reactivity to tumor. Changes in cellular characteristics due to malignancy. Host components which affect tumor progression. Tumor cell components which protect it from the immune system. Rationale for tumor immunotherapy and know the approaches    
CHAPTER NINETEEN
IMMUNODEFICIENCIES
Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. Immunodeficiencies in AIDS and other conditions. Major primary immunodeficiencies and their features. Relationship between site of lesion and resulting immunodeficiency. Diagnostic tests for different immunodeficiencies    

BACTERIOLOGY    IMMUNOLOGY    VIROLOGY    PARASITOLOGY    MYCOLOGY